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托福TPO11阅读名师精评版(2)Orientation and Navigation (原文+题目+解析)|雷哥托福

2018-01-10 09:18:09 发布 来源:雷哥托福

To South Americans, robins are birds that fly north every spring. To North Americans, the robins simply vacation in the south each winter. Furthermore, they fly to very specific places in South America and will often come back to the same trees in North American yards the following spring. The question is not why they would leave the cold of winter so much as how they find their way around. The question perplexed people for years, until, in the 1950s, a German scientist named Gustave Kramer provided some answers and, in the process, raised new questions.

Kramer initiated important new kinds of research regarding how animals orient and navigate. Orientation is simply facing in the right direction; navigation involves finding ones way from point A to point B.

Early in his research, Kramer found that caged migratory birds became very restless at about the time they would normally have begun migration in the wild. Furthermore, he noticed that as they fluttered around in the cage, they often launched themselves in the direction of their normal migratory route. He then set up experiments with caged starlings and found that their orientation was, in fact, in the proper migratory direction except when the sky was overcast, at which times there was no clear direction to their restless movements. Kramer surmised, therefore, that they were orienting according to the position of the Sun. To test this idea, he blocked their view of the Sun and used mirrors to change its apparent position. He found that under these circumstances, the birds oriented with respect to the new "Sun." They seemed to be using the Sun as a compass to determine direction. At the time, this idea seemed preposterous. How could a bird navigate by the Sun when some of us lose our way with road maps? Obviously, more testing was in order.

So, in another set of experiments, Kramer put identical food boxes around the cage, with food in only one of the boxes. The boxes were stationary, and the one containing food was always at the same point of the compass. However, its position with respect to the surroundings could be changed by revolving either the inner cage containing the birds or the outer walls, which served as the background. As long as the birds could see the Sun, no matter how their surroundings were altered, they went directly to the correct food box. Whether the box appeared in front of the right wall or the left wall, they showed no signs of confusion. On overcast days, however, the birds were disoriented and had trouble locating their food box.

In experimenting with artificial suns, Kramer made another interesting discovery. If the artificial Sun remained stationary, the birds would shift their direction with respect to it at a rate of about 15 degrees per hour, the Sun's rate of movement across the sky. Apparently, the birds were assuming that the "Sun" they saw was moving at that rate. When the real Sun was visible, however, the birds maintained a constant direction as it moved across the sky. In other words, they were able to compensate for the Sun's movement. This meant that some sort of biological clock was operating-and a very precise clock at that.

What about birds that migrate at night? Perhaps they navigate by the night sky. To test the idea, caged night-migrating birds were placed on the floor of a planetarium during their migratory period. A planetarium is essentially a theater with a domelike ceiling onto which a night sky can be projected for any night of the year. When the planetarium sky matched the sky outside, the birds fluttered in the direction of their normal migration. But when the   dome was rotated, the birds changed their direction to match the artificial sky. The results clearly indicated that the birds were orienting according to the stars.

There is accumulating evidence indicating that birds navigate by using a wide variety of environmental cues. Other areas under investigation include magnetism, landmarks, coastlines, sonar, and even smells. The studies are complicated by the fact that the data are sometimes contradictory and the mechanisms apparently change from time to time. Furthermore, one sensory ability may back up another.


查看题目和解析请点击下方   网友解析

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网友解析

  • 正确答案:CCDABCBAACABA
  • 雷哥托福TPO11第二篇在线题目链接☞☞☞

    http://www.toeflonline.cn/reading/11819.html


    1. 推断题

    解析:文章开头到The question前都在讲robins这类鸟的迁徙,根据选项定位判断。AB没说。C文章中说robins春天在北方,冬天在南方,所以C对。D原文说back to the same trees,所以destination没有改变,D错

     

    2. 词汇题

    解析:原句说这个问题perplex人们很多年,知道1950s一位德国科学家才给到答案,所以perplex应该是让人困惑的意思,选C

     

    3. 句子简化题

    解析:原句结构为“他做了一个实验并发现除了阴天鸟类的方向都是对的”,所以选D。其他三项都没说except的部分

     

    4. 词汇题

    解析:原句前句说它们通过太阳来决定方向,原句就说这种想法看上去preposterous,而后句又提出了问题,说明那么说明这种想法是让人心存疑惑的,所以选A难以置信的。Preposterous不合理的、荒谬的

     

    5. 事实信息题

    解析:根据Kramer, mirror定位到第5句(To test this idea...),说为了证实这个想法,想法在上句:它们是根据太阳的位置进行定位的,K use mirror做了些啥。所以use mirror是为了证实是不是根据太阳来定位的想法,选B

     

    6. 事实信息题

    解析:根据caged starling定位到He then set up experiments...这句(第3句),说除了阴天鸟类的方向都是对的,阴天时它们restless movements焦躁不安的运动没有明确的方向,而问题问的是什么时候caged starling会变焦躁,这里并没有答案。文章在段首句也提到restless,说是在它们通常应该迁徙的时候,而caged starlings这个实验也是为了证明K的发现,所以选C

     

    7. 推断题

    解析:由该段可知不管盒子的位置在哪儿,只要能看见太阳,鸟都能找到食物盒子,而一旦overcast,鸟就没有方向了,所以这里也是承接上段想证明太阳对鸟方向感的影响。选B

     

    8. 事实信息题

    解析:根据real Sun定位到When the real Sun was visible这句,说鸟会保持不变的方向移动,所以选A,同义表达。

     

    9. 事实信息题

    解析:根据biological clock定位到最后一句,而这句说的是结论,题干问的是原因,而This指代前面的内容,所以往前看。说这些鸟保持飞行方向不变,这样能够弥补太阳的移动即太阳位置的变化,所以选A

     

    10. 事实信息题

    解析:根据planetarium定位到第3句,但这句话只是在说p是什么,并没有说明鸟如何在夜晚定位,继续往下看,最后一句说结果表明鸟是根据星星来确定方向,所以选C

     

    11. 文章结构题

    解析:文章首段提出鸟类迁移的事实,后文通过各种实验说明这些鸟是通过什么来在迁移过程中定位的,比如太阳、夜空,所以选A

     

    12. 词汇题

    解析:accumulate计算、积累,accumulating积累的,那就是越来越多的,所以选B增加的

     

    13. 句子插入题

    解析:插入句提到he, feed box, compass,答案应该在A或B处,因为CD前都没有he, compass相关信息。插入句说a compass,A后说the compass,说明插入句应该在A,即他将盒子放在指南针的各个方向,然后说这些盒子是静止的,有食物的盒子总在指南针同一个点上。


题目讨论

  • 用户头像

    lalla  发表于 01-10 15:15:35

    额外

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      • 用户头像
        lalla:的

        01-10 15:15:43

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    kisenana  发表于 01-10 09:21:57

    TPO11题目链接:Orientation and Navigation http://www.toeflonline.cn/reading/11819.html

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    kisenana  发表于 01-10 09:20:33

    题目看不到。

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